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Essays, Outlines

Good Governance Is Key To Poverty Alleviation

At a time when multiple variants of COVID-19 are taking a heavy toll on life, good governance has become central to crisis management and COVID-19 control. There are no two ways about the fact that good governance is essential to combating poverty. Since governance is all about political control, policy …

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Gender Inequality In Pakistan

Gender inequality is as endemic to Pakistan as poor economic growth and poverty. Gender discrimination or inequality is the prejudicial treatment of an individual or group due to gender. Gender inequality is a social condition in which men and women are not treated with equity. Gender inequality is a problem …

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Role & Power Of Media In Today’s World


The famous quote by William J. Federer summarizes so well the role and power of media in today’s world which says: “The country is controlled by the laws, laws are controlled by the politicians, politicians are controlled by the vote, the vote is controlled by the public opinion and public …

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The Climate Change And Its Impact On Pakistan

Climate change is something that can neither be averted nor ignored. It’s like a part and parcel of life like many other unavoidable changes. The key manifestations of climate change include the melting of glaciers, rise in global temperatures, etc. There is uncertainty about how much the changing climate will …

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How Do I Spend My Sunday?

Sunday is like a big relief for everyone who works, study and want a little bit off from the daily routine. Whenever I think of Sunday, wibes of peace and tranquility start making rounds on me. I plan everthing from outing to morning walk, from social media time to doing …

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Why Poverty Is A Political Choice?


There is a famous quote that explains so well why poverty is a political choice which says: “If you are born poor, it’s not your mistake, but if you die poor, it’s your mistake.” Poverty is actually a condition in which a person or community lacks the resources and essentials for a minimum standard …

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Women Universities As Agents Of Change

Women Universities As Agents Of Change 1)-  Introduction 2)- Education and its various types Formal education Informal education Non-formal education 3)-  Various levels of education Primary and secondary levels of education Higher secondary level of education Higher education 4)- Prevailing situation of women education across the globe High dropout rate …

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Pakistan And Future Of The Kashmir Cause

1)-  Introduction 2)-  A bird’s eye view of the Kashmir issue Territorial nature of the dispute A nuclear flashpoint Post-1846 scenario Various parts of Kashmir 3)-  Probable solutions for the peaceful resolution of the Kashmir issue Consistent dialogue between India and Pakistan and China A plebiscite in accordance with United …

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Corruption; Causes And Effects


1)-  Introduction 2)-  What is corruption? Misuse of power and authority Abuse of entrusted power for private gain Bribery 3)-  Causes of Corruption Lack of professional ethics Absence of accountability Greed for money High prices of goods and services Inefficiencies in the administrative structure Poor regulation of price control Absence …

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Social Media; Advantages And Disadvantages


1)-  Introduction 2)-  A bird’s eye view f social media Digital platform Internet-based applications and programs Based on user-generated content 3)-  Different categories of social media Social networks (FaceBook, Twitter) Media sharing networks (Snapchat, Instagram) Discussion forums Consumer Review Networks 4)-  Advantages of social media Source of connectivity Generates income …

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Pollution And Its Various Effects


Introduction What is pollution? Addition of harmful, and unwanted materials to the environment Contaminants can be natural or man-made Various types of pollution Land pollution Noise pollution Water pollution Radioactive pollution Air pollution Causes of pollution Vehicular exhausts Consumption and burning of fossil fuels Improper dumping of household Garbage Industrial …

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Women Empowerment

1)-  Introduction 2)-  A bird’s eye view of women empowerment Women empowerment can be categorized into five main parts; social empowerment educational empowerment economic empowerment political empowerment psychological empowerment 3)-  Problems faced by the women Lack of education Health issues Nutrition gap Unavailability of political rights Violation of basic rights Little …

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Kashmir Issue; Its Various Causes


Outline: 1)-  Introduction 2)-  A bird’s eye view of the Kashmir issue Territorial nature of Kashmir dispute A nuclear flashpoint between India and Pakistan  3)-  A brief overview of the history of Kashmir Former princely states Post-1846 scenario Various parts of Kashmir Gilgit Baltistan Indian-Administered Kashmir Pakistan-Administered Kashmir Aksai Chin …

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Inflation: Causes, And Effects


1)-  Introduction 2)-  What is inflation? The rise in prices of commodities Service sector inflation Artificial inflation 3)-  Various types of inflation Demand-pull inflation Cost-push inflation Built-In inflation 4)-  Causes of inflation Lawlessness Lack of legal, and public accountability Bad governance Corruption Hoarding of goods Smuggling of commodities Inefficient taxation Management …

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COVID-19: A Wake-up Call For Pakistani Researchers

 Outline: 1)- Introduction 2)- COVID-19; its emergence and spread Conspiracy theories about Covid-19 Three waves of Covid-19 Pandemic Covid-19 and Pakistan 3)- Impact of Covid-19 on different sectors in Pakistan             A- Impact on the economic sector Increase in poverty Rising food insecurity Increase in …

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Human Inventions Move The Societies Backward

Looking at the world with fresh eyes is the hallmark of a genius inventor – being open to endless possibilities for creation. How we use things is totally upon us. The fault lies within our way of thinking, not in the human inventions of various nature. Photo source: 123rf    …

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Frequently Asked Computer-related And IT Abbreviations

A ACL Access Control List AES Advanced Encryption Standard AG Access Gateway ARP Address Resolution Protocol B BRAS Broadband Remote Access Server C CESoPSN Circuit-Emulation Service over Packet Switched Network CLI Command Line Interface CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access D DBA Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DoS …

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Democracy and Illiteracy Don’t Move Together

Outline:   1. Introduction   2. Democracy and its various forms Direct democracy. Representative democracy. Constitutional democracy. Monitory democracy.   3. What is meant by illiteracy and what are its basic types? Functional illiteracy(incompetence in such basic functions as reading, writing, and mathematics) Cultural illiteracy(lack of basic information needed to …

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Classrooms Decide The Future Of The Nation


The classrooms can positively contribute towards the progressive and bright future of the nations if they’re equipped with advanced technologies, modern study material, well-behaved teachers, and a comprehensive curriculum. Classrooms are the places where students can sit calmly to focus on the subject matter. No matter which subject one is …

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Islam And Terrorism Are Two Different Things

Outline:          1. Introduction          2. A brief overview of Islam A complete code of life A religion of peace Teaches courtesy, kindness, affection, and patience        3. What is terrorism and what are the types of terrorism? Terrorism is the spread …

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Impacts of COVID-19 on Education Sector

The pandemic has reshaped the dynamics of education worldwide seriously challenging the status quo. All we need to do is to transform the education sector from the formal classrooms towards digitization so as to meet the requirements of education during unprecedented times. The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 has certainly affected …

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Challenges Posed by Modern Era


Outline: Introduction What is meant by the modern era? Early modern era Late modern era 3. Some unique characteristics of the modern era Rapid industrialization The fast flow of information Emerging diversity Modern and fifth-generation warfares Advancements in technology and Artificial intelligence Increased cooperation and competition Popular culture and increased …

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Fifth Generation Warfare; Challenges for Pakistan


Outline: Introduction Generations of warfare – A brief overview First-Generation Warfare  (lines and column wars) Second Generation Warfare (rifles and gunpowder) Third Generation Warfares (tanks, artilleries, and air force) Fourth Generation Warfare (asymmetric warfare, and non-state actors) Fifth Generation Warfare (battle of perceptions and information) 3. Characteristics of fifth-generation warfare …

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Polarized Politics: The Issues And Challenges Of Democracy In Pakistan


1)- Introduction 2)- Defining Polarization of politics 3)- The situation of polarized politics in Pakistan Polarization in the name of sects religious polarization ethnic polarization cultural polarization geographical polarization social polarization economic polarization linguistic polarization 4)- Issues and challenges of Democracy in Pakistan Formation of weak central governments Politically unstable …

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Socio-Economic Impacts Of Covid-19 Pandemic

Outline: 1. Introduction 2. A brief overview of the Covid-19 Pandemic Origin of COVID-19 How Covid-19 spreads? Is Covid-19 temperature-sensitive Potential treatment of COVID-19 3. Socio-economic Impacts of COVID-19 Global economic depression Income and job losses Reduction in remittances The decline in global trade Increase in food insecurity Dramatic fall …

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Online Education In Pakistan; Prospects And Challenges

Outline: 1. Introduction 2. A brief overview of online education      Online education – an instruction delivery system Online availability of coursework and other materials Utilizes gadgets and learning apps for the sake of communication 3. Why do we need online education? Online education helps to continue education during …

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Feminism Is Not Only A Third World Issue

Outline: Introduction A brief overview of feminism Meaning of feminism Different waves of feminism a)- First wave of feminism b)- Second wave of feminism c)- The third wave of Feminism 3. What is the third world? Developing countries of Asia and Africa A brief insight into the origin of the …

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Globalization; Merits, and Demerits

The planet Earth wasn’t always that complex, and complicated as it’s today. People, organizations, communities, societies; all have become increasingly dependent upon one another for the fulfillment of needs, and for accomplishing different tasks. Things are manufactured in certain parts of the world and sold to some other parts away …

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