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Conditional Sentences: First, Second And Third-conditional Sentences

First conditional sentences

The verb in the if-clause(conditional part) is in the present tense whereas the verb in the main clause is in the simple future. It doesn’t matter which comes first. Both the clauses in the first conditional sentences relate to the future.

In the first conditional sentences, both clauses can fall in negative and both can be active voice or passive voice.

The conditional part would always be translated in present indefinite. The main part of the sentence would be translated into future indefinite tense.

Examples of first conditional sentences

  • If Kalabagh Dam is constructed, the electricity crisis would diminish.
  • If cricket is played, I’ll win. (Passive voice)
  • If it rains, I will not play hockey. (Active voice)
  • If it rains, cricket will not be played by me. (Passive voice)
  • If you are looking for Aiza, you’ll find her in the drawing-room.
  • If you have written the letter, let her post it.
  • If you waiting for the train ticket, you had better join the queue.
  • If you want to achieve health goals you had better exercise daily.
  • If you want to see Aishwarya Rai you should visit India.
  • If you want to meet Amitabh Bachan you had better visited India.
  • If the fog gets thicker I would rather miss the class.
  • If the state of Pakistan wants development and prosperity in near future it needs to get rid of each and every form of corruption.

Second conditional sentences

In second conditional sentences, the verb in the if-clause is in the past tense whereas the verb in the main clause is in the conditional tense. The first form of the verb is used in the main clause.

 

Note: In the second conditional sentence replace “was’ with “were”.

Second conditional sentences are used when supposition is contrary to the known facts. 

Examples

  • If I were an American national, I would be the President of the United States.
  • If I were you I would lend him money.
  • If I came across a burglar I would scream.
  • If I dyed my hair blue everyone would laugh at me.
  • If you try again you would succeed.
  • If he had a permit he could secure a job.
  • If I were you I would help that innocent soul.
  • If I went to Mars I would construct a studio apartment there.
  • If were the Prime Minister of Pakistan I would end poverty and deprivation.

Second conditional sentences can be an active voice, passive voice, and negative.

If I were sent to Mars I would construct a house there. (if-clause is in the passive voice)

If I were sent to Mars a house would be constructed there by me. (both the clauses are in the passive voice)

Third-Conditional sentences 

The verb in the if-clause is in the past perfect tense; the verb in the main clause is in the perfect conditional.

Examples

If the students had been teached properly they would have appeared for on campus examination.

If Daniel Pearl Case had been investigated properly the prolonged detention of innocent civilians would have been avoided.

We can also use past perfect continuous in the if-clause. 

If the teachers had been teaching properly the students would not have been on roads for protests.

If I had not been wearing a face mask I would have been contracting coronavirus.

If China would have controlled the coronavirus initially the millions of lives could have been saved.

Had can be placed first and if is omitted.

Had he been there in time the delay in getting train tickets would have been avoided.

Had there not been a thing like Covid-19 the Trump would have been the President of the United States.

Had Mehwish not been reacted so explicitly the th ings would have been normal.

Could or might may be used instead of would.

If he had been there in time the delay in getting train tickets could have been avoided.

Should can be placed first and if omitted. 

Should I worked harder in the school days I would be having a comfortable position now.

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